活动介绍:2019年10月加州野火,风事件和停电

二零一九年十月三十零日

主要经验

❏   At the end of October, three significant fires took place in California, namely the kincade火 in Northern California and the Tick and Getty fires in Southern California, fueled by high speed winds with heated air blowing from inland to the ocean. California Governor Gavin Newsom declared statewide emergency due to fires and extreme weather conditions (CA Gov, 2019). PG&E shut down power for an estimated 2.35 million people across 38 counties at the same time increasing the severity of the situation.

❏   The planned PG&E power outages are similar to what could happen after an earthquake. Documenting the consequences of these power outages in terms of economic losses and other metrics can provide very useful regional data related to natural hazard extreme event resiliency. 

❏停电也突出说明了基础设施网络的相互依存关系,并为维护和基础设施网络的协调一个学习的机会操作过市县。

❏类似火灾很可能地震等自然灾害,这是由于这些极端事件的出现甚至因为额外需求的结构,一个更坏的状况后发生。 

失败和kincade过程中的损坏,蜱和盖蒂火灾再次强调防火,改善防火性能的需要,特别是当受到多种灾害结构的脆弱性。考虑到火灾破坏和摧毁了许多住宅和商业结构的后果,需要制定提供有价值的内容,建筑物的住宅和商业建筑,不仅耐火技术,而且经济的解决方案。

概观

At the end of October, three significant fires took place in California, namely the kincade火 in Northern California and the Tick and Getty fires in Southern California, fueled by high speed winds with heated air blowing from inland to the ocean. California Governor Gavin Newsom declared statewide emergency due to fires and extreme weather conditions (CA Gov, 2019). PG&E shut down power for an estimated 2.35 million people across 38 counties at the same time increasing the severity of the situation. 

本次通报的目的是:1)提供了十月的细节2019加州野火,风事件和停电,2)来描述停机时间和经济损失方面的建筑物和其他基础设施,破坏社会的损害,3)名单主要经验有关地震等灾害的经验教训。这里提供的信息是基于各种网站,新闻频道和calfire,因此不包括详细的实地调查。

kincade火

在kincade火开始在2019年10月23日下午9:27在索诺玛县。起始位置被报告为约翰·金凯德道路的交点和燃烧的山路,以w的38.792°N,122.78°坐标(图1中,火灾CAL,2019a)盖瑟维尔的东北。在本报告撰写之时,它仍在继续与74000英亩烧毁(图1,洛杉矶时报,2019a),并没有得到遏制。引发起火的原因仍然不明,正在调查中。火毁124层结构和损坏的23,其中包括住宅结构和酿酒厂和其他商业建筑(图2)。 

图1. kincade火(左,CAL火,2019a)的起源和焚烧区域(右,洛杉矶时报,2019a)

图2.结构kincade火过程中消耗:沿国道128(左,洛杉矶时报,2019b),苏打石酒厂的低矮平房(右,ABC7新闻,2019) 

 

大约有18万人被责令撤离在大面积(纽约时报,2019)。火势蔓延面积大风,速度记录周日(2019年10月27日)上午,由于增加高达90英里,被称为暗黑风。附近的加州海岸正常天气模式是湿润的海风脱落太平洋和内陆旅行。但在秋季,即建立在在内华达州和犹他州原因大盆地高压缠绕以相反的方向移位,从而在加利福尼亚州北部暗黑风和圣安娜南加州(洛杉矶时报,2019c)的风。这些风不仅速度快,而且热,因为它们加热,因为它们下降的山脉的西侧,跨越海岸范围中央谷和登山(图3)。

图3.暗黑风从高压行进内陆朝下落期间沿海较低压力区域(洛杉矶时报,2019c) 

 

These high winds and the potential risk of the power lines igniting fire are the main reason that PG&E shut down power for an estimated 2.35 million people across 38 counties starting from Saturday, 10/26/2019 (CBS SF Bay Area, 2019), including the areas affected by the kincade火. These power outages are similar to what could occur after an earthquake. Therefore, documenting the consequences of these power outages in terms of economic losses and other metrics can provide very useful regional data related to natural hazard extreme event resiliency. Furthermore, these outages highlight and demonstrate the interdependencies of infrastructure networks (e.g. East Bay Municipal Utility District connected emergency generators and backup pumps to keep the water flowing during the PG&E power outage, ebmud,2019) and provide a learning opportunity for the maintenance and coordination of infrastructure networks operated over cities and counties.

蜱火

蜱火开始在2019年10月24日下午2:51在洛杉矶。起始位置被报告为蜱峡谷次和峰会小丘RD,峡谷国家的交点与34.473°N,118.368°坐标W(图4中,卡火,2019b)。在本报告撰写之时,它仍然是持续与大约4,000英亩(86%)含有。引发起火的原因仍然不明,正在调查中。火毁22层的结构和损坏27,包括住宅和商业建筑(图5)。类似的火灾很可能会发生地震后,表示即使对于因地震,因为额外需求的结构更糟糕的情况。 

这些故障和kincade过程中的损坏,并勾选火灾再次强调防火,改善防火性能的需要,特别是当受到多种灾害结构的脆弱性。类似kincade火,剔火被风从内陆吹向海洋推波助澜,名为圣安娜风。 

图4和蜱火的起源受灾地区(洛杉矶时报,2019a)

图5.结构蜱火过程中消耗:结构上燃烧贝克峡谷在果壳AVE(左,洛杉矶每日新闻,2019),一所房子在燃烧峡谷国家红杉路上(右,信号,2019) 

盖蒂火

盖蒂火刚过上午01点30分在2019年10月28日由证人谁被称为加州公路巡警和报道在山坡上,靠近405号高速公路附近的盖蒂中心博物馆(CBS洛杉矶,2019)看到火焰报道。它仍然在不断的到位600英亩具有强制撤离的命令(图6,洛杉矶消防局,2019)的区域。有超过10,000的结构与破坏8个住宅和六个住宅受损的强制疏散区(住宅及商业)。盖蒂博物馆,最大的艺术组织在世界之一的轮毂,在火(图6),将其设计和构造是地震和保护其有价值的艺术品耐火的附近。耐火系统的几个特点是:1)1300000平方英尺厚的石灰华,为博物馆建筑的外墙高度防火材料,用在屋顶上的碎石沿,2)钢筋混凝土墙和自动折叠防火门能某些位置里面陷阱火灾,3)空调系统,可以推烟掉了,而不是让它在,4)百万加仑地下水箱(今日美国,2019)的。考虑到火灾破坏和摧毁了许多住宅和商业结构的后果,需要制定提供有价值的内容,建筑物的住宅和商业建筑,不仅耐火技术,而且经济的解决方案。

图6.疏散地图盖蒂火(左,洛杉矶消防局,2019),盖蒂中心的照片(右图,今日美国,2019) 

引用

ABC7消息,2019 //abc7news.com/kincade-fire-burns-in-sonoma-county-photos/5647237/

calfire,2019 //www.fire.ca.gov/incidents/2019/10/23/kincade-fire/#incident-news

CA县委书记2019年, //www.gov.ca.gov/2019/10/27/governor-newsom-declares-statewide-emergency-due-to-fires-extreme-weather-conditions/

CBS洛杉矶2019 //losangeles.cbslocal.com/2019/10/29/crews-continue-to-battle-stubborn-618-acre-getty-fire-as-evacuation-orders-remain/

ebmud,2019 //www.ebmud.com/about-us/news/press-releases/ebmud-activating-backup-power-another-power-shutoff/

洛杉矶每日新闻2019 //www.dailynews.com/2019/10/24/fire-burns-200-acres-of-brush-in-canyon-country-structures-threatened/

洛杉矶消防局2019 //www.lafd.org/news/getty-fire

洛杉矶时报,2019a //www.latimes.com/wildfires-map/

洛杉矶时报,2019b //www.latimes.com/california/story/2019-10-27/winds-top-a-stunning-93-mph-in-kincade-fire-zone-causing-havoc-across-sonoma-county

洛杉矶时报,2019c //www.latimes.com/california/story/2019-10-25/two-destructive-fires-hundreds-of-miles-apart-one-culprit-winds

纽约时报,2019 //www.nytimes.com/2019/10/27/us/kincade-fire-california.html#link-6ef395be

信号2019 //signalscv.com/2019/10/tick-fire-update-number-of-structures-destroyed-jumps-to-18-3-firefighters-injured/

今日美国报2019 //www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2019/10/29/getty-fire-getty-center-safest-place-for-art-during-la-wildfires/2493715001/